Module 11A – Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structure and Systems
11.1 Theory of Flight
11.1.1 Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls
Operation and effect of:
– roll control: ailerons and spoilers;
– pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilizers and canards;
– yaw control, rudder limiters;
Control using elevons, ruddervators;
High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaperons;
Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes;
Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices;
Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance, control surface bias,
aerodynamic balance panels;
11.1.2 High Speed Flight
Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight, supersonic flight, Mach number, critical Mach number, compressibility buffet, shock
wave, aerodynamic heating, area rule;
Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed aircraft;
Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number.
11.2 Airframe Structures – General Concepts
(a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
Zonal and station identification systems;
Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue;
Drains and ventilation provisions;
System installation provisions;
Lightning strike protection provision;
(b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor
structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti-corrosive protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments;
Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising,
Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.
11.3 Airframe Structures – Aeroplanes
11.3.1 Fuselage (ATA 52 / 53 / 56)
Construction and pressurisation sealing;
Wing, stabilizer, pylon and undercarriage attachments;
Seat installation and cargo loading system;
Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices;
Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms.
11.3.2 Wings (ATA 57)
Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments.
11.3.3 Stabilizers (ATA 55)
Control surface attachment.
11.3.4 Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55 / 57)
Construction and attachment;
Balancing – mass and aerodynamic.
11.3.5 Nacelles / Pylons (ATA 54)
11.4 Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurisation (ATA 21)
11.4.1 Air Supply
Sources of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground cart.
11.4.2 Air Conditioning
Air conditioning systems;
Air cycle and vapour cycle machines;
Flow, temperature and humidity control system.
Control and indication including control and safety valves;
Cabin pressure controllers.
11.4.4 Safety and Warning Devices
Protection and warning devices.
11.5 Instrument / Avionic Systems
11.5.1 Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
Pitot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator,
horizontal situation indicator, turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems;
Other aircraft system indication.
11.5.2 Avionic Systems
Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of:
– Auto Flight (ATA 22);
– Communications (ATA 23);
– Navigation Systems (ATA 34).
11.6 Electrical Power (ATA 24)
Batteries Installation and Operation;
DC power generation;
AC power generation;
Emergency power generation;
Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
11.7 Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25)
(a) Emergency equipment requirements;
Seats, harnesses and belts.
(b) Cabin lay-out;
Equipment lay -out;
Cabin Furnishing Installation;
Cabin entertainment equipment;
Cargo handling and retention equipment;
11.8 Fire Protection (ATA 26)
(a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
Fire extinguishing systems;
(b) Portable fire extinguisher.
11.9 Flight Controls (ATA 27)
Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
Active load control;
High lift devices;
Lift dump, speed brakes;
System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, fly-bywire;
Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter, gust locks;
Balancing and rigging;
Stall protection system.
11.10 Fuel Systems (ATA 28)
System lay -out;
Dumping, venting and draining;
Cross-feed and transfer;
Indications and warnings;
Refuelling and defuelling;
Longitudinal balance fuel systems.
11.11 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29)
System lay -out;
Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
Emergency pressure generation;
Indication and warning systems;
Interface with other systems.
11.12 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30)
Ice formation, classification and detection;
Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
De-icing systems: electrical, pneumatic and chemical;
Rain repellant and removal;
Probe and drain heating;
11.13 Landing Gear (ATA 32)
Construction, shock absorbing;
Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
Indications and warning;
Wheels, brakes, antiskid and autobraking;
11.14 Lights (ATA 33)
External: navigation, anti-collision, landing, taxiing, ice;
Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
11.15 Oxygen (ATA 35)
System lay -out: cockpit, cabin;
Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
Indications and warnings.
11.16 Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36)
System lay -out;
Sources: engine / APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
Indications and warnings;
Interfaces with other systems.
11.17 Water/Waste (ATA 38)
Water system lay -out, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
Toilet system lay -out, flushing and servicing;
On Board Maintenance Systems (ATA 45)
Central maintenance computers;
Data loading system;
Electronic library system;
Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).