Airbus A320 family

The Airbus A320 family consist of A318, A319, A320, A321 and ACJ business jet. These Aircrafts are usually short to medium range. All  narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.

Airbus A320 family sketch

Design of Airbus A320 family

The Airbus A320 family are narrow-body (single-aisle) aircraft with a retractable tricycle landing gear and are powered by two wing pylon-mounted turbofan engines. The Airbus A320 family is the only narrow-body aircraft from Airbus.

The Airbus A320 family are low-wing cantilever monoplanes with a conventional tail unit with a single vertical stabilizer and rudder. Wing swept back at 25 degrees, optimised for maximum operating Mach number 0.82.The Airbus A320 is the first narrow body airliner to have a significant amount of its structure made from composite material. Its tail assembly made almost entirely of such material by CASA. CASA also builds the elevators, main landing gear doors, and rear fuselage parts.


Narrow Body, single aisle.
Landing gear.
Type of main Landing gear..
number of main Landing gears.
no of wheels in the L/G..
cantilever monoplanes.
Wing swept back.
25 degrees.
Maximum operating mac number.
wing tip devices.
winglets or sharklets.
Engines attachment.
wing pylon-mounted..
Number of engine.
Engine type.
Pratt & Whitney PW6000 series (A318 only).

CFM International CFM56-5 series.

IAE V2500 series.

Thrust Reverser.
Pivoting doors (CFM).

Cascade Reverser (V2500)

Tail Type.
APS 3200.
Flight controls.
Fly by wire.
Control column
Side sticks.

Airbus cockpit A320


Accidents and incidents involving the Airbus A320 family


  • On 19 January 2003, Northwest Airlines Airbus A319-114 and registered as N313NB, was damaged by maintenance personnel at LaGuardia Airport being taxied from a maintenance area to the gate, striking the gate and a Boeing 757, collapsing the nosegear. The Airbus was damaged beyond repair and written off.]
  • On 10 May 2005, a Northwest Airlines DC-9 collided on the ground with a Northwest Airlines Airbus A319 that had just pushed back from the gate at Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport. The DC-9 suffered a malfunction in one of its hydraulic systems in flight. After landing, the captain shut down one of the plane’s engines, inadvertently disabling the remaining working hydraulic system. Six people were injured and both planes were substantially damaged.
  • On 12 August 2010, Azerbaijan Airlines Flight 75, using an Airbus A319-111 and registered as 4K-AZ04, suffered a collapse of the undercarriage when the aircraft departed the runway on landing at Atatürk International Airport, Istanbul, Turkey. The aircraft was substantially damaged but all 127 passengers and crew escaped unharmed.
  • On 24 September 2010, Wind Jet Flight 243, using an Airbus A319-132 and registered as EI-EDM, landed short of the runway and broke an undercarriage when the aircraft attempted landing at Palermo Airport, Italy. Preliminary reports name windshear as one possible cause for the accident. The aircraft was seriously damaged and was written off but stopped in the grass out of the runway. 34 passengers suffered minor injuries.
  • On 24 May 2013, British Airways Flight 762, using an Airbus A319-131 and registered as G-EUOE, returned to London Heathrow Airport after fan cowl doors detached from both engines shortly after take off. During the approach a fire broke out in the right engine and persisted after the engine was shut down. The aircraft landed safely with no injuries to the 80 people on board. A preliminary accident report revealed that the cowlings had been left unlatched following overnight maintenance. The separation of the doors caused airframe damage and the right hand engine fire resulted from a ruptured fuel pipe.


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Raked wingtips – Why Boeing-777 doesn’t have winglets?

Boeing uses a desgin called Raked wingtips. Boeng 787, Boeing 767 and boeing 747- 800 uses the same design. All these aircrafts are capable of flying ultra long distance. This wing tip design is known as Raked wing tips.

Raked wingtips design is where the tip of the wing has a higher degree of sweep than the rest of the wing.

Raked wingtips

Raked wingtips

Raked wingtips

Raked wingtips are more efficient in ULTRA LONG cruise segments. Whereas other wingtip treatments like winglets are more efficient in climb. Winglets do reduce drag, but they actually generate a bit of lift due to the way in which wingtip vortices strike the leading edges of the winglet…but that only happens to a significant degree when the wing is at higher angles of attack….like in climb configurations. Aircraft with winglets are shorter range…like the 737. It makes more sense and saves more fuel to optimize the climb and approach segments than it does to try to optimize the cruise phase of the flight. That might seem counter-intuitive, but Boeing engineers proved the math.

Raked wingtips on the other hand don’t generate lift…what they do is reduce drag in a special way…by redirecting wingtip drag (vortices) farther outboard and aft of the rest of the wing… and it also redistributes the lift across the entire wing (called wing loading). The result is that they work in ultra long cruise segments. They don’t depend on wing angle of attack, and they reduce fuel consumption when engine power is already set to cruise.

For more details read this blog.. ( slightly detailed )

Short answer is winglets and raked tips both reduce drag and extend the range of an aircraft. But they do it in different ways…and which way is best depends mostly as a function of cruise flight time.


Module 17 – Propeller

17.1 Fundamentals
Blade element theory;
High/low blade angle, reverse angle, angle of attack, rotational speed;
Propeller slip;
Aerodynamic, centrifugal, and thrust forces;
Relative airflow on blade angle of attack;
Vibration and resonance.

17.2 Propeller Construction
Construction methods and materials used in wooden, composite and metal propellers;
Blade station, blade face, blade shank, blade back and hub assembly;
Fixed pitch, controllable pitch, constant speeding propeller;
Propeller/spinner installation.

17.3 Propeller Pitch Control
Speed control and pitch change methods, mechanical and electrical/electronic;
Feathering and reverse pitch;
Overspeed protection.

17.4 Propeller Synchronising
Synchronising and synchrophasing equipment.

17.5 Propeller Ice Protection
Fluid and electrical de-icing equipment.

17.6 Propeller Maintenance
Static and dynamic balancing;
Blade tracking;
Assessment of blade damage, erosion, corrosion, impact damage, delamination;
Propeller treatment/repair schemes;
Propeller engine running.

17.7 Propeller Storage and Preservation
Propeller preservation and depreservation.

Gas Turbine Engine

Module 15 – Gas Turbine Engine

15.1 Fundamentals
Potential energy, kinetic energy, Newton’s laws of motion, Brayton cycle;
The relationship between force, work, power, energy, velocity, acceleration;
Constructional arrangement and operation of turbojet, turbofan, turboshaft, turboprop.

15.2 Engine Performance
Gross thrust, net thrust, choked nozzle thrust, thrust distribution, resultant thrust, thrust horsepower, equivalent shaft horsepower,
specific fuel consumption;
Engine efficiencies;
By-pass ratio and engine pressure ratio;
Pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas flow;
Engine ratings, static thrust, influence of speed, altitude and hot climate, flat rating, limitations.

15.3 Inlet
Compressor inlet ducts;
Effects of various inlet configurations;
Ice protection.

15.4 Compressors
Axial and centrifugal types;
Constructional features and operating principles and applications;
Fan balancing;
Causes and effects of compressor stall and surge;
Methods of air flow control: bleed valves, variable inlet guide vanes,
variable stator vanes, rotating stator blades;
Compressor ratio.

15.5 Combustion Section
Constructional features and principles of operation.

15.6 Turbine Section
Operation and characteristics of different turbine blade types;
Blade to disk attachment;
Nozzle guide vanes;
Causes and effects of turbine blade stress and creep.

15.7 Exhaust
Constructional features and principles of operation;
Convergent, divergent and variable area nozzles;
Engine noise reduction;
Thrust reversers.

15.8 Bearings and Seals
Constructional features and principles of operation.

15.9 Lubricants and Fuels
Properties and specifications;
Fuel additives;
Safety precautions.

15.10 Lubrication Systems
System operation/lay -out and components.

15.11 Fuel Systems
Operation of engine control and fuel metering systems including electronic engine control (FADEC);
Systems lay -out and components.

15.12 Air Systems
Operation of engine air distribution and anti – ice control systems,
including internal cooling, sealing and external air services.

15.13 Starting and Ignition Systems
Operation of engine start systems and components;
Ignition systems and components;
Maintenance safety requirements.

15.14 Engine Indication Systems
Exhaust Gas Temperature/Interstage Turbine Temperature;
Engine Thrust Indication: Engine Pressure Ratio, engine turbine discharge pressure or jet pipe pressure systems;
Oil pressure and temperature;
Fuel pressure and flow;
Engine speed;
Vibration measurement and indication;

15.15 Power Augmentation Systems
Operation and applications;
Water injection, water methanol;
Afterburner systems.

15.16 Turbo-prop Engines
Gas coupled/free turbine and gear coupled turbines;
Reduction gears;
Integrated engine and propeller controls;
Overspeed safety devices.

15.17 Turbo-shaft engines
Arrangements, drive systems, reduction gearing, couplings, control systems.

15.18 Auxiliary Power Units (APUs)
Purpose, operation, protective systems.

15.19 Powerplant Installation
Configuration of firewalls, cowlings, acoustic panels, engine mounts, anti-vibration mounts, hoses, pipes, feeders, connectors, wiring looms, control cables and rods, lifting points and drains.

15.20 Fire Protection Systems
Operation of detection and extinguishing systems.

15.21 Engine Monitoring and Ground Operation
Procedures for starting and ground run-up;
Interpretation of engine power output and parameters;
Trend (including oil analysis, vibration and boroscope) monitoring;
Inspection of engine and components to criteria, tolerances and data specified by engine manufacturer;
Compressor washing/cleaning;
Foreign object damage.

15.22 Engine Storage and Preservation
Preservation and depreservation for the engine and accessories/systems.

Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structure and Systems

Module 11A – Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structure and Systems

11.1 Theory of Flight

11.1.1 Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls
Operation and effect of:
– roll control: ailerons and spoilers;
– pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilizers and canards;
– yaw control, rudder limiters;

Control using elevons, ruddervators;
High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaperons;
Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes;
Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices;
Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance, control surface bias,
aerodynamic balance panels;

11.1.2 High Speed Flight
Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight, supersonic flight, Mach number, critical Mach number, compressibility buffet, shock
wave, aerodynamic heating, area rule;
Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed aircraft;
Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number.

11.2 Airframe Structures – General Concepts
(a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
Zonal and station identification systems;
Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue;
Drains and ventilation provisions;
System installation provisions;
Lightning strike protection provision;
Aircraft bonding.

(b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor
structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti-corrosive protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments;
Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising,
Surface cleaning;
Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.

11.3 Airframe Structures – Aeroplanes

11.3.1 Fuselage (ATA 52 / 53 / 56)
Construction and pressurisation sealing;
Wing, stabilizer, pylon and undercarriage attachments;
Seat installation and cargo loading system;
Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices;
Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms.

11.3.2 Wings (ATA 57)
Fuel storage;
Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments.

11.3.3 Stabilizers (ATA 55)
Control surface attachment.

11.3.4 Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55 / 57)
Construction and attachment;
Balancing – mass and aerodynamic.

11.3.5 Nacelles / Pylons (ATA 54)
Engine mounts.

11.4 Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurisation (ATA 21)

11.4.1 Air Supply
Sources of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground cart.

11.4.2 Air Conditioning
Air conditioning systems;
Air cycle and vapour cycle machines;
Distribution systems;
Flow, temperature and humidity control system.

11.4.3 Pressurisation
Pressurisation systems;
Control and indication including control and safety valves;
Cabin pressure controllers.

11.4.4 Safety and Warning Devices
Protection and warning devices.

11.5 Instrument / Avionic Systems

11.5.1 Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
Pitot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator,
horizontal situation indicator, turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems;
Other aircraft system indication.

11.5.2 Avionic Systems
Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of:
– Auto Flight (ATA 22);
– Communications (ATA 23);
– Navigation Systems (ATA 34).

11.6 Electrical Power (ATA 24)
Batteries Installation and Operation;
DC power generation;
AC power generation;
Emergency power generation;
Voltage regulation;
Power distribution;
Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
Circuit protection;
External/Ground power.

11.7 Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25)
(a) Emergency equipment requirements;
Seats, harnesses and belts.

(b) Cabin lay-out;
Equipment lay -out;
Cabin Furnishing Installation;
Cabin entertainment equipment;
Galley installation;
Cargo handling and retention equipment;

11.8 Fire Protection (ATA 26)
(a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
Fire extinguishing systems;
System tests.

(b) Portable fire extinguisher.

11.9 Flight Controls (ATA 27)
Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
Trim control;
Active load control;
High lift devices;
Lift dump, speed brakes;
System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, fly-bywire;
Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter, gust locks;
Balancing and rigging;
Stall protection system.

11.10 Fuel Systems (ATA 28)
System lay -out;
Fuel tanks;
Supply systems;
Dumping, venting and draining;
Cross-feed and transfer;
Indications and warnings;
Refuelling and defuelling;
Longitudinal balance fuel systems.

11.11 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29)
System lay -out;
Hydraulic fluids;
Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
Emergency pressure generation;
Pressure Control;
Power distribution;
Indication and warning systems;
Interface with other systems.

11.12 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30)
Ice formation, classification and detection;
Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
De-icing systems: electrical, pneumatic and chemical;
Rain repellant and removal;
Probe and drain heating;
Wiper systems.

11.13 Landing Gear (ATA 32)
Construction, shock absorbing;
Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
Indications and warning;
Wheels, brakes, antiskid and autobraking;

11.14 Lights (ATA 33)
External: navigation, anti-collision, landing, taxiing, ice;
Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;

11.15 Oxygen (ATA 35)
System lay -out: cockpit, cabin;
Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
Supply regulation;
Indications and warnings.

11.16 Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36)
System lay -out;
Sources: engine / APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
Pressure control;
Indications and warnings;
Interfaces with other systems.

11.17 Water/Waste (ATA 38)
Water system lay -out, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
Toilet system lay -out, flushing and servicing;
Corrosion aspects.

On Board Maintenance Systems (ATA 45)
Central maintenance computers;
Data loading system;
Electronic library system;
Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).

Basic Aerodynamics

Module 8 – Basic Aerodynamics

8.1 Physics of the Atmosphere
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA), application to aerodynamics.

2.2 Aerodynamics
Airflow around a body;
Boundary layer, laminar and turbulent flow, free stream flow, relative airflow, upwash and downwash, vortices, stagnation;
The terms: camber, chord, mean aerodynamic chord, profile (parasite) drag, induced drag, centre of pressure, angle of attack,
wash in and wash out, fineness ratio, wing shape and aspect ratio;
Thrust, Weight, Aerodynamic Resultant;
Generation of Lift and Drag: Angle of Attack, Lift coefficient, Drag coefficient, polar curve, stall;
Aerofoil contamination including ice, snow, frost.

8.2 Theory of Flight
Relationship between lift, weight, thrust and drag;
Glide ratio;
Steady state flights, performance;
Theory of the turn;
Influence of load factor: stall, flight envelope and structural limitations;
Lift augmentation.

8.3 Flight Stability and Dynamics
Longitudinal, lateral and directional stability (active and passive).

Maintenance Practices

Module 7 – Maintenance Practices

7.1 Safety Precautions – Aircraft and Workshop
Aspects of safe working practices including precautions to take when working with electricity, gases especially oxygen, oils and
Also, instruction in the remedial action to be taken in the event of a fire or another accident with one or more of these hazards.

7.2 Workshop Practices
Care of tools, control of tools, use of workshop materials;
Dimensions, allowances and tolerances, standards of workmanship;
Calibration of tools and equipment, calibration standards.

7.3 Tools
Common hand tool types;
Common power tool types;
Operation and use of precision measuring tools;
Lubrication equipment and methods;
Operation, function and use of electrical general test equipment.

7.4 Avionic General Test Equipment
Operation, function and use of avionic general test equipment.

7.5 Engineering Drawings, Diagrams and Standards
Drawing types and diagrams, their symbols, dimensions, tolerances and projections;
Identifying title block information;
Microfilm, microfiche and computerised presentations;
Specification 100 of the Air Transport Association (ATA) of America;
Aeronautical and other applicable standards including ISO, AN, MS, NAS and MIL;
Wiring diagrams and schematic diagrams.

7.6 Fits and Clearances
Drill sizes for bolt holes, classes of fits;
Common system of fits and clearances;
Schedule of fits and clearances for aircraft and engines;
Limits for bow, twist and wear;
Standard methods for checking shafts, bearings and other parts.

7.7 Electrical Cables and Connectors
Continuity, insulation and bonding techniques and testing;
Use of crimp tools: hand and hydraulic operated;
Testing of crimp joints;
Connector pin removal and insertion;
Co-axial cables: testing and installation precautions;
Wiring protection techniques : Cable looming and loom support, cable clamps, protective sleeving techniques including heat shrink wrapping, shielding.

7.8 Riveting
Riveted joints, rivet spacing and pitch;
Tools used for riveting and dimpling;
Inspection of riveted joints.

7.9 Pipes and Hoses
Bending and belling/flaring aircraft pipes;
Inspection and testing of aircraft pipes and hoses;
Installation and clamping of pipes.

7.10 Springs
Inspection and testing of springs.

7.11 Bearings
Testing, cleaning and inspection of bearings;
Lubrication requirements of bearings;
Defects in bearings and their causes.

7.12 Transmissions
Inspection of gears, backlash;
Inspection of belts and pulleys, chains and sprockets;
Inspection of screw jacks, lever devices, push-pull rod systems.

7.13 Control Cables
Swaging of end fittings;
Inspection and testing of control cables;
Bowden cables; aircraft flexible control systems.

7.14 Material Handling

7.14.1 Sheet Metal Work
Marking out and calculation of bend allowance;
Sheet metal working, including bending and forming;
Inspection of sheet metal work.

7.14.2 Composite and non-metallic
Bonding practices;
Environmental conditions;
Inspection methods.

7.15 Welding, Brazing, Soldering and Bonding
(a) Soldering methods; inspection of soldered joints.

(b) Welding and brazing methods;
Inspection of welded and brazed joints;
Bonding methods and inspection of bonded joints.

7.16 Aircraft Weight and Balance
(a) Centre of Gravity / Balance limits calculation: use of relevant documents.

(b) Preparation of aircraft for weighing;
Aircraft weighing.

7.17 Aircraft Handling and Storage
Aircraft towing and associated safety precautions;
Aircraft jacking, chocking, securing and associated safety precautions;
Aircraft storage methods;
Refuelling / defuelling procedures;
De-icing/anti-icing procedures;
Electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic ground supplies;
Effects of environmental conditions on aircraft handling and operation.

7.18 Disassembly, Inspection, Repair and Assembly Techniques
(a) Types of defects and visual inspection techniques;
Corrosion removal, assessment and reprotection.

(b) General repair methods, Structural Repair Manual;
Ageing, fatigue and corrosion control programmes.

(c) Non destructive inspection techniques including, penetrant, radiographic, eddy current, ultrasonic and boroscope methods.

(d) Disassembly and re-assembly techniques.

(e) Troubleshooting techniques.

7.19 Abnormal Events
(a) Inspections following lightning strikes and HIRF penetration.

(b) Inspections following abnormal events such as heavy landings and
flight through turbulence.

7.20 Maintenance Procedures
Maintenance planning;
Modification procedures;
Stores procedures;
Certification/release procedures;
Interface with aircraft operation;
Maintenance Inspection/Quality Control/Quality Assurance;
Additional maintenance procedures;
Control of life limited components.

Materials and Hardware – EASA part 66 module 6

Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

6.1 Aircraft Materials – Ferrous
(a) Characteristics, properties and identification of common alloy steels used in aircraft;
Heat treatment and application of alloys steels.

(b) Testing of ferrous materials for hardness, tensile strength, fatigue strength and impact resistance.

6.2 Aircraft Materials – Non-Ferrous
(a) Characteristics, properties and identification of common non-ferrous materials used in aircraft;
Heat treatment and application of non-ferrous materials;

(b) Testing of non-ferrous material for

6.3 Aircraft Materials – Composite and Non-Metallic
6.3.1 Composite and non-metallic other than wood and fabric
(a) Characteristics, properties and identification of common composite and non-metallic materials, other than wood, used in aircraft;
Sealant and bonding agents.

(b) The detection of defects/deterioration in composite and non-metallic material;
Repair of composite and non-metallic material.

6.4 Corrosion
(a) Chemical fundamentals;
Formation by, galvanic action process, microbiological, stress.

(b) Types of corrosion and their identification;
Causes of corrosion;
Material types, susceptibility to corrosion.

6.5 Fasteners
6.5.1 Screw Threads
Screw nomenclature;
Thread forms, dimensions and tolerances for standard threads used in aircraft;
Measuring screw threads.

6.5.2 Bolts, studs and screws
Bolt types: specification, identification and marking of aircraft bolts, international standards;
Nuts: self locking, anchor, standard types;
Machine screws: aircraft specifications;
Studs: types and uses, insertion and removal;
Self tapping screws, dowels.

6.5.3 Locking Devices
Tab and spring washers, locking plates, split pins, pal-nuts, wire locking, quick release fasteners, keys, circlips, cotter pins.

6.5.4 Aircraft Rivets
Types of solid and blind rivets: specifications and identification, heat treatment.

6.6 Pipes and Unions
(a) Identification of, and types of rigid and flexible pipes and their connectors used in aircraft.

(b) Standard unions for aircraft hydraulic, fuel, oil, pneumatic and air system pipes.

6.7 Springs
Types of springs, materials, characteristics and applications.

6.8 Bearings
Purpose of bearings, loads, material, construction;
Types of bearings and their application.

6.9 Transmissions
Gear types and their application;
Gear ratios, reduction and multiplication gear systems, driven and driving gears, idler gears, mesh patterns;
Belts and pulleys, chains and sprockets.

6.10 Control Cables
Types of cables;
End fittings, turnbuckles and compensation devices;
Pulleys and cable system components;
Bowden cables;
Aircraft flexible control systems.

6.11 Electrical Cables and Connectors
Cable types, construction and characteristics;
High tension and co-axial cables;
Connector types, pins, plugs, sockets, insulators, current and voltage rating, coupling, identification codes.

Digital techniques and Electronic instrument systems – EASA part 66 module 5

5.1 Electronic Instrument Systems
Typical systems arrangements and cockpit layout of elec-tronic instrument systems.

5.2 Numbering Systems
Numbering systems: binary, octal and hexadecimal;
Demonstration of conversions between the decimal and binary, octal and hexadecimal systems and vice versa.

5.3 Data Conversion
Analogue Data, Digital Data;
Operation and application of analogue to digital, and digital to analogue converters, inputs and outputs, limita-tions of various types.

5.4 Data Buses
Operation of data buses in aircraft systems, including knowledge of ARINC and other specifications.

5.5 Logic Circuits
(a)Identification of common logic gate symbols, tables and equivalent circuits;
Applications used for aircraft systems, schematic diagrams.
(b) Interpretation of logic diagrams.

5.6 Basic Computer Structure
(a)Computer terminology (including bit, byte, software, hardware, CPU, IC, and various memory device such as RAM, ROM, PROM);
Computer technology (as applied in aircraft systems).
(b)Computer related terminology;
Operation, layout and interface of the major components in a micro computer including their associated bus systems;
Information contained in single and multiaddress instruction words;
Memory associated terms;
Operation of typical memory devices;
Operation, advantages and disadvantages of the various data storage systems. (B2 only)

5.7 Microprocessors (B2 only)
Functions performed and overall operation of a microprocessor;
Basic operation of each of the following microprocessor elements: control and processing unit, clock, register, arithmetic logic unit

5.8 Integrated Circuits (B2 only)
Operation and use of encoders and decoders;
Function of encoder types;
Uses of medium, large and very large scale integration.

5.9 Multiplexing (B2 only)
Operation, application and identification in logic diagrams
of multiplexers and demultiplexers.

5.10 Fibre Optics
Advantages and disadvantages of fibre optic data transmission over electrical wire propagation;
Fibre optic data bus;
Fibre optic related terms;
Couplers, control terminals, remote terminals;
Application of fibre optics in aircraft systems.

5.11 Electronic Displays
Principles of operation of common types of displays used
in modern aircraft, including
Cathode Ray Tubes, Light Emitting Diodes and Liquid
Crystal Display.

5.12 Electrostatic Sensitive Devices
Special handling of components sensitive to electrostatic
Awareness of risks and possible damage, component and
personnel anti-static protection devices.

5.13 Software Management Control
Awareness of restrictions, airworthiness requirements and
possible catastrophic effects of unapproved changes to
software programmes.

5.14 Electromagnetic Environment
Influence of the following phenomena on maintenance
practices for electronic system:
EMC-Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMI-Electromagnetic Interference
HIRF-High Intensity Radiated Field
Lightning/lightning protection

5.15 Typical Electronic/Digital Aircraft Systems
General arrangement of typical electronic/digital aircraft
systems and associated BITE
(Built In Test Equipment) testing such as:
ACARS-ARINC Communication and Addressing and
Reporting System
ECAM-Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring
EFIS-Electronic Flight Instrument System
EICAS-Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System
FBW-Fly by Wire
FMS-Flight Management System
GPS-Global Positioning System
IRS-Inertial Reference System
TCAS-Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System